I've had contact with a few folks recently who have been hit by one variation or another of the nastiness out in our personal computing world, and being an IT security professional I know better than most the level, numbers and frequency that these malicious objects are being created and circulated - all looking for unsuspecting users' computers to inhabit.


Many 'typical' home users aren't aware of many of the more creative means by which these are being propagated, so I decided to put together a basic primer in order to help my friends cope with today's Internet vulnerabilities. LONG GONE ARE THE INNOCENT DAYS WHEN USERS COULD JUST SURF THE NET OR READ EMAIL UNIMPEDED AND WITHOUT FORETHOUGHT!!!



For the sake of this article I'm going to group everything nasty into the term malware for the sake of simplicity. This is not technically correct, but is certainly more proper (to me for a less-technical audience) than lumping them into the term virus, because much of what is out there is not viral in nature.


Malware includes Adware, Nagware, Spyware, keystroke loggers, "unwanted programs", worms, bots, zombies, boot sector infectors, virii, phishing, etc... there are a whole plethora of types of nastiness out there in today's computing world, and much of it is just waiting to bite all of us at the first opportunity.


One of the worse ones in recent history is Conficker - it has been extremely effective, has infected 10's of millions of PCs, and is still estimated to be present on over 6 million PCs worldwide! This stuff is getting more and more sophisticated and prevalent. In the last 30 days alone, there have been over 175,000 targets, over 1,000,000 sources, and over 400,000,000 reports just to the SANS Internet Storm Center (http://isc.sans.org/submissions.html) alone!!! On any given day there are a mind-boggling number of new threats released, to add to those existing which just never seem to die.


A great write-up of the real-world exploit state is available on SANS at http://www.sans.org/top-cyber-security-risks/, and is really worth the viewing even for those who aren't technically oriented or interested... it is a real eye-opener!


Also, an extremely good and comprehensive list of means to protect yourself is available on SANS at http://www.sans.org/tip_of_the_day.php


This is by no means meant to be a complete reference, and while it is extremely lengthy please do us all a favor and read through this in its entirety - I took the time to put this together because I care for all of you and would like to help prevent any abuse of my friends!



Quite some time ago know, some enterprising black hat-types figured out that email was one of the best means to circulate their nefarious codes. First it was fairly blatant and rudimentary - attach an infected file to an email and blindly distribute it to the masses (SPAM). Now, they've become much more sophisticated and successful by passing:

         URL links/Phishing

         Infected PDF or graphic files (often pornographic, "cute" or of emotional interest)

         e Cards


The most diabolical aspect of email distribution was when "they" figured out, through the programming power of APIs exposed by the email interfaces, it was simple to programatically compose and send emails to everyone listed in users' personal address books automatically, so that the email appears to be legitimately sent from a friend instead of being spam from an unknown source. This has by far caused the email distribution of malware to become one of, if not the, most effective means to infect. TAKE NOTE - JUST BECAUSE IT COMES FROM SOMEONE YOU KNOW DOESN'T MEAN IT WON'T HURT YOU! I can't stress this enough!


Another really cool 'feature' that has become a popular exploit is to embed a URL link in an email... very benign and innocent in appearance, and usually appearing to lead to a legitimate website of interest. This is the heart of the phishing schemes also - emails sent requesting you to 'update your information' for: banking, credit cards, Paypal, IRS, etc. NEVER click a link in an email taking you to a site where you are required to provide login credentials or personal information, PERIOD!!! If B of A asks you to update your account information or make a late payment via email, open your browser on your own, log in to your account, and then take care of whatever business you need to from there.


Here's an example of how simple it is to spoof a URL: http://www.microsoft.com The link to the left appears to lead to Microsoft, but if you click it you will find that is not the case! The scammers are very adept at downloading all the page graphics from banks and other commerce-type sites and setting up a fake front, which appears to be legitimate, but which they have complete control over and can capture any data entry including logon credentials, account information, etc.


While we're reviewing URL vulns, ALWAYS check the address bar in your browser to verity you're on the site you think you are... be sure there are no typos, and if you're making online purchases be sure the address begins with https (Windows XP Pro) (Windows Vista), and for IE that the "lock" appears in either the address bar or status bar (THE STATUS BAR IS YOUR FRIEND!!!), depending on the version of browser you're using:

{Windows XP Pro)

(Windows Vista)


This ensures that you are using a HTTPS connection, which is secured via SSL (Secure Socket Layer) to validate and encrypt the authentication (a really good thing!).


Regardless of whether you're following a URL link from an email or a website, you must review the actual link to verify that it is going to take you to where you think you're going!!! In most browsers, this is easy to do by hovering the mouse cursor over the URL, and the actual address should be displayed in the bottom status bar.


Another common place you will find spoofed URL addresses is in the social networking sites - Myspace in particular is rife with these... more on this vulnerability later.



These days, extreme caution needs to be exercised while innocently browsing the Web... many pitfalls await. Between downright malicious sites, hijacked sites, DNS spoofing, 'bot networks, and poisoned search results, it is all too easy to get caught on a "bad" site and not even realize it. Now days, there are many ways to download and install the bad stuff without you even knowing it just by going to the 'wrong' site (even though it appears proper or innocent), and to make matters worse you may not even know it for days, weeks or even months. Several malicious packages can now be silently installed just by visiting an infected site, and will lay dormant on your PC for a long period of time before acting up.


- BE SURE YOU TYPE THE RIGHT DOMAIN QUALIFIER! One way that the 'bad guys' are getting over is to purchase a domain name such as www.visa.net, and to put up a fake front with all the correct graphics, then drive traffic to the site via means like spam with a URL link, performing a XSS cross-site scripting attack, or many of the other means to get users to the website. WWW.VISA.COM is NOT the same as WWW.VISA.NET!!!


As mentioned above, now it is extremely important to be mindful what sites you choose to visit when doing a Google or Yahoo search - the search results can be poisoned and malicious fake sites can be bumped in the website ratings so that they are listed towards the top results... they appear to be legitimate, have related text displayed in the results, and can be just informational pages or shopping storefronts designed to steal your financial information for their own use.



With the advent of Myspace, and now Facebook and Twitter, new distribution means have been made available to those with ill intent, populated by millions of innocent and naive users, just waiting to fall victim to their evils.


One of the most common Myspace vulnerabilities I see on an extremely frequent basis is a Friend Request or Message from an unfamiliar person (very often a good looking chick asking for you to stay in contact on Myspace or one of the other Instant Messaging tools, or directing you to another website where you can 'view' their webcams). First and foremost, if the redirection is to a legitimate site it is going to be for money and the intent of hooking the user into their "adult webcam" business. HOWEVER, many of the profiles are fake yet appear as legitimate Myspace profile pages. When you hover your mouse cursor over part, or all, of the profile page you will note that the address in the status bar (THE STATUS BAR IS YOUR FRIEND!!!) doesn't point to Myspace at all... it will typically redirect you to an adult-oriented site which also may be compromised or serving up spyware, virus code, fake AV, adware, etc.... DON'T DO IT!!! Here's an example for reference:


The address is a legitimate Myspace URL:

(Windows XP Pro)

(Windows VISTA)


The mouse cursor is hovering over the Profile link:


The status bar reveals that the URL link will indeed take you to a page on Myspace, not some external website:


Here are some good reference websites for more information, for whatever social networking sites you're interested in:



(So many vulnerabilities I haven't found one source for a summary listing! Do a Google search for Myspace vulnerabilities and just review the shear number of returns!)











All computer to computer and computer to server communications are done through things called ports... they are channels in the operating system which are used to communicate to applications, interfaces and devices. Many of the more experienced home users remember the days of modems and that they have to set them up to use a COM PORT - remember? That was one of the most common and familiar uses, but behind the scenes today's computers use a great many ports in our daily travels.


Ports, however, can be an extreme vulnerability if not properly controlled and managed. This gets a bit challenging, as the regular casual use doesn't have the means and understanding to really do so. Fortunately there are a few methods to protect yourself without having to obtain a Computer Science degree... Firewalls, Router configurations and many Antivirus tools can plug many holes without having to understand the underlying technology - be sure to take whatever measures you're comfortable with to mitigate as much risk as possible! Suggestions are included below.


I'd bet few, if any, reading this primer are aware that there are now several extremely popular and successful vulnerabilities that are completely transparant and will infect a computer strictly by being on the Internet via an open and unsecured port! This is one of the most important reasons to ensure that your operating system, application and antivirus patches are kept as current as possible! When building/rebuilding a new computer I will never get it on the network until I get the patching current, and functional antivirus installed. Current "time to infection" for a Microsoft PC is now 4 minutes or less! All this without ever surfing the 'Net, reading an email, or doing any action what so ever! For a home network, once a nasty has made it onto one PC it is usually fairly trivial to infect the rest, many times regardless of the additional safeguards you've taken. This is especially true for those who are running with elevated privileges - Administrator, Power User, etc...




First and foremost, as mentioned previously PATCH YOUR COMPUTER and ENSURE YOU HAVE FUNCTIONAL, UP-TO-DATE ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE INSTALLED AND RUNNING! Be sure your computer is set to receive (minimum) and install (preferred) all Microsoft patches as they become available, and that your AV software is also set to update DAILY!!! This also goes for your applications and "helper applications" - MS Office, Adobe Acrobat, photo editing software, banking software, Quicktime, Adobe Flash, etc.


Also be sure your AV software is set to perform a complete scan REGULARLY... once a week is minimum, more often is better. Be sure to let it run to completion - overnight is probably best so that it doesn't impact your computer's performance when you're using it. And make sure the default settings appear to be correct - DO NOTHING is not a good response when something is discovered! Minimal is to quarantine and notify, better is to set to CLEAN, then DELETE if unable to clean!


Be sure whatever available security is turned on for your router or cable/DSL modem - that will prevent much from getting onto your home network.


Realizing it is a PITA (pain in the arse), DO NOT use administrator-level user accounts for your daily use, PERIOD. This just opens up your computer to whatever is out there, as much of the vulnerability code will execute in whatever user context is current.


Be sure you have Windows Firewall turned on, or are using some other software or hardware firewall! This will stop much of the bad stuff at the gate, as far as what is dynamically being thrown at you - it will not however prevent much of what you bring on to yourselves via surfing, email, etc... it is just one more measure to take towards minimizing your risk and exposure!


Be sure Windows Defender is also set to automatically update, or at least notify so you can manually update, and that it is also scheduled to run on a REGULAR basis... Daily isn't unreasonable, as I don't find it to be as resource-intensive as AV software is.



OK - so now that you've gone and secured your systems, you find that there is some nastiness present... or you ignored all of my warnings and got yourself in trouble... OR set this primer aside to read later because I wrote so much and didn't get a chance to take the precautions I've tediously laid out, and you now need to know how to get your system back (IF POSSIBLE!!!). Yes, there are a great many circumstances these days where you just may not be able to recover! Unfortunate but true.


DO NOT CALL ME!!! And especially DO NOT EMAIL ME!!! Just kidding, sort of, but the intent here is to provide you with many of the means to heal thyself... and besides, I don't live close to most of you now, so I probably won't be of a lot of use - try these first, THEN get a hold of me for further consult if you are still FUBAR.


FIRST THING TO DO, regardless whether you're infected or not, is to develop and implement a BACKUP PLAN and do so REGULARLY! BACK YOUR IMPORTANT STUFF UP!!! Digital photos are priceless, and it is all too easy to lose YEARS' worth of photos forever! Quicken/Money data files are IMPORTANT - BACK THEM UP! I'm not going to go into data backup strategies, as that is a whole 'nother primer and as it is you're going to be challenged to read all of this! Suffice it to say, whether it is to removable media (CD/DVD/tape/floppy media), another computer or two or three, digital memory - FIND A WAY to back up your important data and DO IT REGULARLY!!! I can guarantee you at some point in time your hard drive will fail, or you will become so infected that recovery just ISN'T POSSIBLE!!!


That being said, here are a few resources you can use to attempt recovery for vulnerabilities you might encounter:


MSRT - Microsoft has developed the Malicious Software Recovery Tool for aiding with identifying and remediating any malicious software your computer might be hosting. To check to see if it is already installed, Click Start | Run and enter "MRT" in the Open dialog box, then press Enter - if it already exists, the opening screen will be displayed. IF YOU DON'T HAVE IT, GET IT! It's free, doesn't take much in the way of computing power, and will help protect your system and recover if you do happen to get hit! You can also access and execute it from Microsoft's site, in a pinch.


MSRT information: http://support.microsoft.com/Default.aspx?kbid=890830

MSRT Download page: http://www.microsoft.com/security/malwareremove/default.aspx


McAfee recovery tools: http://vil.nai.com/vil/averttools.aspx (Stinger is one of the best freeware removal tools available - first thing I'll grab myself)


Symantec recovery tools: http://www.symantec.com/norton/security_response/removaltools.jsp


Sophos virus removal instructions: http://www.sophos.com/support/disinfection/ (detailed step-by-step instructions on how to remove specific virii should you know what you're now infected with)


Sophos Threat Detection Test: http://www.sophos.com/products/free-tools/sophos-threat-detection-test.html?utm_source=Non-campaign&utm_medium=Cross%20link&utm_campaign=Disinfection-TDT-promo (no endorsement implied, as I haven't personally tried it out. However, knowing that Sophos is one of the industry leaders I have confidence in including the link here... this can be used to examine your system, as well as test your non-Sophos antivirus software(s) apparently)


Bootsector Infectors - if somehow you've gotten infected with a bootsector infector (you see the word bootsector or rootkit in any of the alerts for instance), this is a BAD THING and can be extremely nasty to deal with. This means malicious code has been loaded deep down in your computer, before control has even been passed to the operating system. Reloading Windows, running the recovery tools, and crying probably won't be able to recover from it... it will likely require a low-level format of the hard drive (wiping EVERYTHING - you DID back up your system, right???) and reinstallation of the operating system and all applications and settings. Many/most of the newer computers now come with recovery images on the hard drive (in a separate partition, usually hidden) where the system can be restored to a virgin image... you will lose all customizations, all applications you've installed since you first got it, and things like pictures, audio files, etc... ANYTHING that wasn't on it when you first got it (YOU DID BACK IT UP, DIDN'T YOU???). Most of the time it will require delicate surgery (from the hands of a skilled computer person) to get the system cleaned and recovered, as it may likely require the Primary partition to be formatted at very least, and in worst case it will require all the partitions to be wiped and recreated, thus also removing the recovery image. TAKE THE TIME, at your earliest convenience, to MAKE THE RECOVERY DISCS if your computer provides the facility... this will make a copy of the recovery image files on CD or DVD media IN CASE THE DRIVE IS TOAST or otherwise requires Draconian voodoo magic (low-level formatting and partitioning). Final warning and recommendation.


Good luck, and hopefully if you follow the information I've outlined above, you won't have to attempt the measures I've outlined towards the end!


Happy computing!!!!